IN ITALY

Rulers:—

Lorenzo de' Medici (reigned 1469-1492) and Pietro de' Medici (1492-1494), dukes of Florence.

Giovanni Galeazzo Sforza (reigned 1476-1494), Lodovico Maria Sforza (1494-1500), and Massimiliano Sforza (1512-1515), dukes of Milan.

Francesco Maria della Rovere, duke of Urbino (born 1490; died 1535).

Ferdinand I. (reigned 1458-1494), Ferdinand II. (reigned 1495-1496), and Ferdinand III., kings of Naples, the last being he who was also king of Spain as Ferdinand V.

Innocent VIII. (1484-1492), Alexander VI. (1492-1503), Pius III. (1503), Julius II. (1503-1513), and Leo X. (1513-1523), popes.

Painters:—

Older group:—

Perugino (1446-1523).

Bazzi (1477-1549).

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).

Bartolommeo (1475-1517).

Giorgione (1477-1510).

Titian (1477-1576).

Giovanni Bellini (1428-1516).

Compeers:—

Andrea del Sarto (1486-1531).

Sebastian del Piombo (1485-1547).

Assistants and Pupils:—

Giulio Romano (1492-1546).

Giovanni da Udine (1487-1564).

Francesco Penni (1488-1528).

Marc Antonio (1487-1539), engraver.

Michelangelo (1474-1564), sculptor.

Bramante (1444-1514), architect of St. Peter's.

Sanazzaro Jacopo (1458-1530 or 1532), poet (De Partu Virginia).

Ariosto (1474-1533), poet (Orlando Furioso).

Francesco Berni (1496-1536), comic poet.

Cardinal Bembi (1470-1547), celebrated scholar.

Count Baldasarre Castiglione (1478-1529), writer and patron of literature.

Christopher Columbus (1436 or 1446-1506), discoverer.