FRENCH PAINTING. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

Books Recommended: As before, Stranahan, et al.; also Ballière, Henri Regnault; Blanc, Les Artistes de mon Temps; Blanc, Histoire des Peintres français au XIXme Siècle; Blanc, Ingres et son Œuvre; Bigot, Peintres français contemporains; Breton, La Vie d'un Artiste (English Translation); Brownell, French Art; Burty, Maîtres et Petit-Maîtres; Chesneau, Peinture française au XIXme Siècle; Clément, Études sur les Beaux Arts en France; Clément, Prudhon; Delaborde, Œuvre de Paul Delaroche; Delécluze, Jacques Louis David, son École, et son Temps; Duret, Les Peintres français en 1867; Gautier, L'Art Moderne; Gautier, Romanticisme; Gonse, Eugène Fromentin; Hamerton, Contemporary French Painting; Hamerton, Painting in France after the Decline of Classicism; Henley,Memorial Catalogue of French and Dutch Loan Collection (1886); Henriet, Charles Daubigny et son Œuvre; Lenormant, Les Artistes Contemporains; Lenormant, Ary Scheffer; Merson, Ingres, sa Vie et son Œuvre; Moreau, Decamps et son Œuvre; Planche, Études sur l'École française; Robaut et Chesneau, L'Œuvre complet d'Eugène Delacroix; Sensier, Théodore Rousseau; Sensier, Life and Works of J. F. Millet; Silvestre, Histoire des Artistes vivants et étrangers; Strahan, Modern French Art; Thoré, L'Art Contemporain; Theuriet, Jules Bastien-Lepage; Van Dyke, Modern French Masters.

THE REVOLUTIONARY TIME: In considering this century's art in Europe, it must be remembered that a great social and intellectual change has taken place since the days of the Medici. The power so long pent up in Italy during the Renaissance finally broke and scattered itself upon the western nations; societies and states were torn down and rebuilded, political, social, and religious ideas shifted into new garbs; the old order passed away.

FIG. 60.—DAVID. THE SABINES. LOUVRE. 
FIG. 60.—DAVID. THE SABINES. LOUVRE.

Religion as an art-motive, or even as an art-subject, ceased to obtain anywhere. The Church failed as an art-patron, and the walls of cloister and cathedral furnished no new Bible readings to the unlettered. Painting, from being a necessity of life, passed into a luxury, and the king, the state, or the private collector became the patron. Nature and actual life were about the only sources left from which original art could draw its materials. These have been freely used, but not so much in a national as in an individual manner. The tendency to-day is not to put forth a universal conception but an individual belief. Individualism—the same quality that appeared so strongly in Michael Angelo's art—has become a keynote in modern work. It is not the only kind of art that has been shown in this century, nor is nature the only theme from which art has been derived. We must remember and consider the influence of the past upon modern men, and the attempts to restore the classic beauty of the Greek, Roman, and Italian, which practically ruled French painting in the first part of this century.