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John W. Bradley

Introductory—Monasteries and their work from the sixth to the ninth century—The claustral schools—Alcuin—Warnefrid and Theodulf—Clerics and monastics—The Golden Age of monasticism—The Order of St. Benedict—Cistercian houses—Other Orders—Progress of writing in Carolingian times—Division of labour.

The invention of printing—Its very slight effect on illuminating—Preference by rich patrons for written books—Work produced in various cities in the sixteenth century—Examples in German, Italian, and other cities, and in various public libraries up to the present time.

No. Name. Where Produced. Where Kept. Date. Remarks. 1 Hours, etc., Lat. and Catalan. ...... Brit. Mus., Add. 18193 ...... Netherlandish influence. 2 Offices B.M.V. ...... Brit. Mus., Add.

What is meant by art?—The art faculty—How artists may be compared—The aim of illumination—Distinction between illumination and miniature—Definition of illumination—The first miniature painter—Origin of the term “miniature”—Ovid's allusion to his little book.

The copyists—Gratuitous labour—Last words of copyists—Disputes between Cluny and Citeaux—The Abbey of Cluny: its grandeur and influences—Use of gold and purple vellum—The more influential abbeys and their work in France, Germany, and the Netherlands.

Abrahams, N.C.L. Description des MSS. françaises du Moyen Age de la Bibliothèque Royale de Copenhague. 4to. Copenhagen. 1844.

Alt, H. Die Heiligenbilder oder die bildende Kunst u. die Theologie. 8vo. Berlin, 1845.

Difference between vellum and parchment—Names of different preparations—The kinds of vellum most prized for illuminated books—The “parcheminerie” of the Abbey of Cluny—Origin of the term “parchment”—Papyrus.

As vellum is constantly spoken of in connection with illumination and illuminated books, it becomes necessary to explain what it is, and why it was used instead of paper.

Departure from Carolingian—Bird and serpent—Common use of dracontine forms in letter-ornament—Influence of metal-work on the forms of scroll-ornament—The vine-stem and its developments—Introduction of Greek taste and fashion into Germany—Cistercian illumination—The Othonian period—Influence of women as patronesses and practitioners—German princesses—The Empress Adelheid of Burgundy—The Empress Theophano—Henry II. and the Empress Cunegunda—Bamberg—Examples of Othonian art.

No. Name. Where Produced. Where Kept. Date. Remarks. 1 Vergil (fragment) ...... Vatican Lib., Rome, Cod. Vat. 3225 3rd or 4th cent. Doubtful which is the older. 2 Vergil ...... Vat. Lib. 3867 4th cent. 3 Rom. Calend.(f.) ...... Imp.
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