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Difference between vellum and parchment—Names of different preparations—The kinds of vellum most prized for illuminated books—The “parcheminerie” of the Abbey of Cluny—Origin of the term “parchment”—Papyrus.

As vellum is constantly spoken of in connection with illumination and illuminated books, it becomes necessary to explain what it is, and why it was used instead of paper.

The copyists—Gratuitous labour—Last words of copyists—Disputes between Cluny and Citeaux—The Abbey of Cluny: its grandeur and influences—Use of gold and purple vellum—The more influential abbeys and their work in France, Germany, and the Netherlands.

Abrahams, N.C.L. Description des MSS. françaises du Moyen Age de la Bibliothèque Royale de Copenhague. 4to. Copenhagen. 1844.

Alt, H. Die Heiligenbilder oder die bildende Kunst u. die Theologie. 8vo. Berlin, 1845.

Its different styles—Origin of Western alphabets—Various forms of letters—Capitals, uncials, etc.—Texts used in Western Europe—Forms of ancient writings—The roll, or volume—The codex—Tablets—Diptychs, etc.—The square book—How different sizes of books were produced.

Departure from Carolingian—Bird and serpent—Common use of dracontine forms in letter-ornament—Influence of metal-work on the forms of scroll-ornament—The vine-stem and its developments—Introduction of Greek taste and fashion into Germany—Cistercian illumination—The Othonian period—Influence of women as patronesses and practitioners—German princesses—The Empress Adelheid of Burgundy—The Empress Theophano—Henry II. and the Empress Cunegunda—Bamberg—Examples of Othonian art.

No. Name. Where Produced. Where Kept. Date. Remarks. 1 Vergil (fragment) ...... Vatican Lib., Rome, Cod. Vat. 3225 3rd or 4th cent. Doubtful which is the older. 2 Vergil ...... Vat. Lib. 3867 4th cent. 3 Rom. Calend.(f.) ...... Imp.

Capitals, yet not pure.

The Vatican Vergil, No. 3225, throughout (Birch, p. 14; Silvestre's Paléographie universelle, pl. 74).

The later Saxon schools—Bernward of Hildesheim—Tuotilo and Hartmut of St. Gallen—Portrait of Henry II. in MS. 40 at Munich—Netherlandish and other work compared—Alleged deterioration of work under the Franconian Emperors not true—Bad character of the eleventh century as to art—Example to the contrary.

No. Name. Where Produced. Where Kept. Date. Remarks. 1 Syriac Gospels Zagba, in Mesopotamia Laur. Lib., Florence c. 586 Shows Byzantine influence. 2 Gospel-book (f.) Byzantium Brit. Mus., Add. 5111 6th cent. Lettering, etc., on gold ground. 3 Menologium „ Vat.
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